Thursday, May 21, 2020

Motivation Theory and Practice Name University - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2447 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/09/17 Category Psychology Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: Motivation Essay Did you like this example? RUNNING HEAD: Motivation Theory and Practice Name University Name Instructor name Course Name Date Motivation Theory and Practice Introduction Motivation is the psychological process which gives the behavior a meaning or a purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); an internal drive to satisfy the unsatisfied needs (Higgins, 1994) and the will to achieve (Bedeian,1993). The word motivation has a different connotation in Psychology, it refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior (Green, 1995). Thus motivation in simple terms can be defined as the desire or willingness to do something and the inner force which helps the individuals to achieve their goals and aims. Motivation is very important in business as the employer has to first of all understand as to what motivates the employees and what exactly should they do to motivate their employees so as to increase the over all productivity. Motivation has occupied a prominent place amongst researcher s due to the fact that business has to motivate not only the employees but also should succeed in motivating the customers. This is so because of the increasing competition in business and the motivated employees can provide a firm with a distinctive advantage and a cutting edge on others by being more productive, which can keep the business organization thriving and surviving. Motivation has been attempted to be studied and analyzed by two schools of thought; the scientific school of thought and the Behavioral School of thought. Scientific Model The scientific method to management tasks was devised by pioneers like Frederic Taylor, (1856-1915). Under this model; employees are regarded as an input in the process of production of goods and services. The scientific approach lays importance on the scientific selection, training and development of the employees rather than giving them an option to choose their own tasks and the methods of training so as to carry out the work in ac cordance with scientifically devised procedures. According to this model human behavior was to be analyzed scientifically, by considering individuals as parts of the machines. Taylor broke down the tasks into smallest units in order to figure out the best approach. Here each worker was assigned a single job in which he is trained like the motions of the parts of the machine. He then made a science for each element of work and restricted the behavioral alternatives of the worker in accordance with his social physical environment, task, capacity, speed, durability and cost in order to remove the human variability (Terpstra, 2005). This model of Taylor was successful as it increased production and profitability as it was based on rationality rather than the trial and error methodology in management, and this led to enhanced efficiency in work. But this approach to the treatment of human beings as machines was opposed by the managers, who called it as dehumanization of work. The other feature of this model was that observation and breaking the timings on the basis of stop-watch timing also faces a strong resistance on the ground that nobody likes his work to be so closely monitored. Taylor’s method though criticized had an impact on the work as it was a very novel efficient and more productive method of work, which totally changed the nature of the industry itself as the departments of work study, personnel, maintenance and Quality check did not exist at all before the scientific model was invented by Taylor (Buford, 2000). Though there have been many developments in this field later but the scientific model has remained the basis for all the other models which developed later, as they were only modifications and not original. Behavioral approach The Behavioral Model approaches the concept from the identification of the elements and specific influences which motivate individuals to increase their efficiency and productivity. Many people have contr ibuted to this approach of motivation and have put forth their theories on these lines. The theory of hierarchy of needs by Maslow (1943) is one such attempt in this regard. According to this theory human needs are considered in the form of hierarchy, ascending from lowest to the highest. Maslow argues that lower level needs have to be satisfied before the higher level needs, as once the needs are satisfied, they cease to be a motivator. To keep the workers in action their lower needs should be satisfied and their higher needs to be satisfied only later. Maslow has elaborated the five needs as; Physiological, security or safety, social, Esteem and self actualization needs. Physiological needs are the most basic human needs which are important for sustenance like food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep etc. Maslow argued that unless physiological needs are satisfied to a degree, no other motivating factor can work. †¢ Safety or Security needs are those needs which relate to one ’s security, protection and stability in the personal life. They are free from physical danger and emotional harm; viz, fear of unemployment, loss of property, food and shelter. †¢ Social Needs are needs for love, affection and belongingness and social acceptance. People are social beings and try to satisfy their needs for acceptance and friendship as man cannot afford to live in isolation. †¢ Esteem – is the need for reputation and esteem, which man expects after his social needs are satisfied. They are; power, prestige status and self confidence. Even internal and external esteem factors like self respect, autonomy, achievements, recognition and attention (Source) †¢ . Self actualization is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Its the need to grow and use abilities to the fullest potential. It includes growth and self-fulfillment by achieving ones potential to accomplish something. The hierarchy is shown in the figure below: [pi c] As given in Maslow’s hierarchy triangle of needs, every need satisfied will be followed by the next on the hierarchy level which becomes important and dominant for example, when physiological needs are satisfied, people look for their safety, which becomes important now and when all the needs are satisfied motivation stops. Thus the crux of this theory is finding out the level of hierarchy in a person’s life. Maslow’s theory of needs is widely recognized and is adopted by the managers all over the world. The theory is easily understood and its intutive logic has made it implementable but the emperical evidence of the measurement of its success after its implementation in the validation of the theory is not found. Hence the quantitative impact of the theory of needs is not accurately measured. Two Factor Theory: If you want people to do a good job, give them a good job to do says Frederick Herzbergs (1959). This motivational theory of Herzberg is based on a two-component approach and is known as the Two Factor theory. He draws a distinction between things which prevent dissatisfaction and those that create satisfaction (Herzberg, 1959). Dissatisfaction leads to de-motivation and because the discontent environmental factors known as Hygiene factors, people are de-motivated at their work place. The hygiene factors include security, status, relationship, personal life, salary, working conditions, company policy and administration (Bedeian, 2003), which are basically essential and do not lead to motivation but their absence would certainly de-motivate the workers. The second component of the Hygiene theory involves those factors, whose absence causes no dissatisfaction but their presence motivates the workers like the work and organizational environment. These factors are termed as motivational factors by Herzberg. Factors like growth prospects, career progression and advancement, responsibility, challenges, recognition and achievem ents are the motivational factors. The theory focuses on the fact that mere removal of the dissatisfying features from a job does not make the work satisfactory but both the approaches of hygiene and motivation should exist simultaneously to make the Herzberg’s approach applicable and it is a modification of the Maslow’s theory hierarchy of needs. The Herzberg’s theory has been criticized as vague, but in the present conditions of business, where the contents and contexts of employment have become major issues, the accurate application and implementation based on the motivational ideas of the theory would give very good results. pic] Diagrammatic representation of Herzberg two-factor theory (Web 2) Vrooms Expectancy Theory is based on the perception that motivation depends on the values and beliefs of a person and it examines whether the motives of an individual will be fulfilled . i. e the belief of the employee that his efforts will increase his performance , which would enhance his rewards (Vroom, 1964). According to the theory individuals can be motivated on the basis of a positive correlation between efforts of the worker and his performance, which should lead to a reward. Consequently, the reward should be able to satisfy his needs and desire to equate his efforts. The theory therefore states that the strength of an individual’s motivation depends on their expectation of the results of heir performance, which contributes to the satisfaction of their need. Hence motivation is the result of a rational calculation (Vroom, 1964). Further the calculations depend upon people’s beliefs and the expectancy multiplied by the probability of performance leading to a reward (instrumentality), multiplied by the perceived value of the reward (Valence) (Source). Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence can be used to predict whether a particular reward will motivate an individual or not. Thus Vroom’s theory is applicable to those situations where someone does something on the expectation of a certain outcome or a result or it is the association between expected outcomes and the contribution the people can make towards the results (Bowen, 1991). Though critics have appreciated the basics of the Vroom’s theory but issues have been raised about the validity of the motivation equation as a product of expectancy, instrumentality and valence. Porter-Lawler Expectancy theory has also contributed to the concept of motivation in terms of expectancy and it is on the same lines as Vroom’s theory and suggests that motivational level is based on the value attributed to the reward by an individual. Performance in a task is mainly determined by the efforts made and the ability of an individual and his perception of the job. Hence, satisfaction of the individual depends upon the fairness of the reward (Bowen 1991) Porter and Lawler point out that perceived inequality in this model plays a pivotal role in job satisfaction. Dissatisfaction according to this theory is caused by the inequality of the reward, which should be constantly and continuously evaluated. Therefore discriminatory practices should be avoided at the work place and equality among the employees should be imbibed by the employers at the place of work. Elton Mayo known for his Hawthorne Experiments analyzed the human aspects of motivation and came to a conclusion that motivation was a very complex phenomenon and was not concerned with only about pay, work condition and morale but also about psychological and social factors. Thus he emphasized on the need for recognition and a sense of belongingness as vital factors of motivation. Comparison between Scientific and Behavior approaches The two approaches to the concept of motivation differ from each other as there is an underlying factor which differentiates between them. According to the Scientific Approach, work is inherently unpleasant to most of the people and financial incentives are very lucrative to them than other factors like the nature of work, role profile, work environment etc. hile the Behavioral approach emphasizes on the social aspects like the role of social processes in organization and belongingness and feeling of being important and useful. Thus this approach emphasizes on the human needs more than monetary benefits. So individuals tend to contribute to the success of the organization through their efforts towards the organizational effectiveness. Scientific management is an effective technique for a capitalist system and a money economy where the companys sole objective is the improvement of efficiency and profitability. (Higgins, 2004). Human approach occupies a prominent place in today’s work environment, as company’s success is judged by the qualitative parameters where worker motivation contributes to the success of the company. Conclusions The changing environment is posing a challen ge to the business organizations in the present day situation and the solution to the motivation problems is becoming more and more complex due to the changing factors of motivation (Bowen Radhakrishna, 2001). The management of the business should be able to understand and comprehend the process, theories and fundamental components of motivation. They should not forget that interest work and employee pay are the main components of motivation along with job enlargement, promotions, monetary benefits and non-monetary compensations. Ten motivating factors have been researched (Higgins, 2004) and they are; interesting work, good wages, full appreciation of work done, job security, good working conditions, promotions and growth in the organization, feeling of being in on things, personal loyalty to employees, tactful discipline, and sympathetic help with personal problems. Thus in order to motivate to enhance the efficiency and productivity in a business organization, a motivation program has to be designed on the basis of the knowledge of the factors which are essential for the motivation of the employees. References: Books and Journal Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed. ), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press. Bedeian, A. G. (2003). Management (3rd ed. ). New York: Dryden Press. Bowen, B. E. , Radhakrishna, R. B. (1991). Job satisfaction of agricultural education faculty: A constant phenomena. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 (2). 16-22. Buford, J. A. , Jr. , Bedeian, A. G. , Lindner, J. R. (2005). Management in Extension (3rd ed. ). Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Extension. Buford, J. A. , Jr. (2000). Extension management in the information age. Journal of Extension, 28 (1). Dickson, W. J. (1973). Hawthorne experiments. In C. Heyel (ed. ), The encyclopedia of management, 2nd ed. (pp. 298-302). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Harpaz, I. (2004). The importance of work goals : an international perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, 21. 5-93. Herzberg, F. , Mausner, B. , Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley Sons. Higgins, J. M. (2004). The management challenge (2nd ed. ). New York: Macmillan. Kovach, K. A. (1997). What motivates employees? Workers and supervisors give different answers. Business Horizons, 30. 58-65. Kreitner, R. (2005). Management (6th ed. ). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, July 1943. 370-396. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Free Press. Smith, G. P. 1994). Motivation. In W. Tracey (ed. ), Human resources management and development handbook (2nd ed. ). Terpstra, D. E. (2005). Theories of motivation: borrowing the best. Personnel Journal, 58. 376. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley . Web sites (Web 1) Motivation theorists and their theories (online) (cited 15 Dec ember) Available from https://www. accel-team. com/motivation/theory_01. html (Web 2) Motivation (online) (cited 16 December) Available from URL https://choo. fis. utoronto. ca/FIS/Courses/LIS1230/LIS1230sharma/motive1. htm[pic][pic][pic] Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Motivation Theory and Practice Name University" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Stylistic Analysis of the Advertising Slogan - 1927 Words

Stylistic Analysis Of The Advertising Slogan ---------Perfume Introduction Along with the rapid development of society and economy, advertisements have penetrated into every stratum of the society, becoming the indispensable part of our daily life. Like newspapers, magazines, television, radio, films, telephone directory, art performance, the Internet, and even the human body, advertising makes use of various media to deliver information to the consumer. Absolutely, we are confronted with it all the time. For its important role, advertisement, hence, has been studied by a large number of linguistics from different angles on different levels. This paper will discuss the stylistic features†¦show more content†¦An example like, Calvin Klein: Be good, be bad, just be yourself. We are one for all for ever. â… ¢. At the Lexical Level Use of the celebritys personal story Unlike most other ads which take advantage of large numbers of adjective, the perfume advertising does not attract the potential customer by piling with positive but useless adjectives such as beautiful, glamorous, graceful, wonderful and so on so forth. Instead, these kinds of luxury advertisements fix their eyes on celebrity, or we can say models. And slogans are usually accompanied with a magic love story. This is a very interesting watching focus of these types of advertisements. They usually have plots, conflicts, and the final settlement. At the beginning, the audience would think they are reading a story or watching a play. But when the perfume appears, they suddenly realize the fact that it is not a story or a play but an advertisement. Usually by then, they have already been attracted, and fall into the trap of the advertisers. Moreover, we have to mention another reason to use the celebrity is make the perfume untouchable and extravagan t. Buyers can feel like being under the spot like those celebrities do. Just like a gorgeous woman said, Every woman alive wants Chanel No.5, every woman has a yearning for being concerned and lives her princess dream. 2. Sometimes use of personal pronouns The use of second person pronoun you tends to shorten the distance between theShow MoreRelatedLanguage of Advertising and Communication Via Advertising16651 Words   |  67 PagesLanguage of Advertising and Communication via Advertising Contents Introduction 3 Chapter 1. Concept of advertising as an act of communication 7 1.1. Definition of Advertising 7 1.2. Communication and Advertising 8 1.3. Functions of Advertising 12 1.4. Image Advertising 14 1.5. Advertising Text and Slogan 15 1.6. Conclusion 16 Chapter 2. Language of advertising 18 2Read MoreLanguage of Advertising and Communication Via Advertising16638 Words   |  67 PagesLanguage of Advertising and Communication via Advertising Contents Introduction 3 Chapter 1. Concept of advertising as an act of communication 7 1.1. Definition of Advertising 7 1.2. Communication and Advertising 8 1.3. Functions of Advertising 12 1.4. Image Advertising 14 1.5. Advertising Text and Slogan 15 1.6. Conclusion 16 Chapter 2. Language of advertising 18 2.1. General CharacteristicsRead MoreLanguage of Advertising20371 Words   |  82 PagesThe Peculiarities of Advertising Language Moscow - 2010 Summary The peculiarities of advertising language are the subject of this graduation paper. At the beginning, in the first chapter is givenRead MoreLinguistic Features of Language6234 Words   |  25 Pages4 Stylistic Features of Language Speech communication employs a host of expressive means ranging from linguistic to paralinguistic and extralinguistic features. 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Meiji Restoration Free Essays

It is a fact that the Meiji Restoration managed to accomplish a great many revolutionary changes, but without a revolutionary level of violence. How did this happen? To understand this, one must know what the Meiji Restoration was and when it took place. It was through the years from 1867 to 1868 that the Tokugawa Era under the great Tokugawa Liasu came to an end with the Meiji restoration, in which the Emperor Meiji moved from Kyoto to Tokyo where the new Imperial Capital was established. We will write a custom essay sample on Meiji Restoration or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, at the same time, the actual political power was effectively transferred from Tokugawa to a group of small time noblemen, and Japan was forced to enter into treaties with Westerners, in much the same way as any other subjugated Asian nation. (Meiji Period 2002) In short, it can be stated that this period in the history of Japan has been termed a ‘renewal’, in which Japan’s political and social structure became unalterably changed, and because of which Japan launched into its industrialization period. Intended as a strong measure to consolidate power against the shogunate, the samurai and the daimyo, all remnants of the Edo government, Tokugawa lands were seized and placed under the ‘imperial control.’ (Meiji Restoration 2008) The Samurai had to be destroyed, and most Samurai, although they resented the change bitterly, had to comply.   With the Meiji restoration came electricity and wheels in the form of the first ‘rickshaw’ ever. Trains followed soon, as did several other reforms and changes, the most important of which was a semblance of democracy. Education became more important than before, and the nation started progressing in leaps and bounds. People now felt that they too had a say in how the country was to be run, and everywhere, everyone appeared to be satisfied with the advances that their country was making in all fields. (The Meiji Restoration (n.d) The issue here is this, how much influence did western powers have over the Meiji restoration in Japan? Were the radical ideas more in keeping in accordance with the local tenor, or were they drastically different? Why then did the shogunate fall quickly, without really offering any resistance? One of the most important things to remember when studying Japanese history is the fact that one must never consider the class struggles that are generally applied for revolutions of all kinds; instead, one must note that the interests of merchants and the ruling classes became so closely inter connected that anything that hurt one would automatically hurt the other. For example, all big merchants depended upon the interest from loans given to the samurai to survive, and the samurai were customers of the chonin, who felt that their own prosperity was closely tied up with the warrior classes, and this meant that they would not think of attacking the existing feudal system, even if it was unfair to them. As the Meiji restoration progressed, the samurai and the aristocrats stood together, thereby showing the world that the revolution in itself was not at all about a rising class that managed to destroy feudalism, nor was it a democratic revolt that offered greater power to representatives of the working classes of Japan. Researchers state confidently that the Meiji restoration would never have been possible but for interference that Japan received from Western powers, including British, American, French, German and Dutch. It is said that some small bits of advice were also obtained from the workers who had been engaged by the Japanese government in various positions such as pilots, engineers, financial advisers, and university and school teachers, among others. Historians believe that it was the presence of Westerners in Japan that undermined the Shogunate, and that this was one of the reasons why it fell so quickly without resistance. One must remember that the rapid economic growth in Japan during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries had made sure that the country was in a position of being readily transformed into a new social order, and by this time, the ‘absurd’ policies of Tokugawa had become completely foolish and outdated, given the social and political conditions in the country at the time. Nationalism and patriotism and national consciousness had also pervaded the people of Japan, and with the arrival of the Perry expedition, at which point of time the arrival of foreigners was considered an attack on the basic traditional values of Japan, the collapse became imminent, and one can understand that Western powers had intentionally or unintentionally applied pressure on Japan and had paved the way for the reforms about to take place, and for the fall of the Shogunate to happen. At the same time, one must also remember that even without Western influence from the United States, Great Britain and Russia among others, the radical reforms of the Meiji restoration would have been inevitable, and although several of the ideas were indeed shaped by Western influences, local flavors too played a very important role in the Meiji restoration and in the fall of the Shogunate. Therefore, it must be stated that the Meiji restoration is in actuality the result of two important factors: the decay within Japan of her present feudal society, and the pressure applied by Western powers to bring an end to Tokugawa’s outdated regime. (Chung, TK 2007) Works cited Meiji Period (1868-1912) â€Å"History† Japanguide.com (2002) Retrieved on February 25, 2008 from http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2130.html â€Å"The Meiji Restoration† History Text (n.d) Retrieved on February 25, 2008 from http://cla.calpoly.edu/~mriedlsp/History315/MeijiText.html â€Å"Meiji Restoration† Wikipedia (2008) Retrieved on February 25, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meiji_Restoration Chung, TK â€Å"The Meiji Restoration, Background† The corner of the world (2007) Retrieved on February 25, 2008 from http://www.thecorner.org/hist/japan/meiji1.htm          How to cite Meiji Restoration, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Tanishq Competition Analysis free essay sample

Tanishq has established itself as the most desirable and trustworthy jewelry brand in India. The product portfolio includes jewellery for everyday wear and for occasions, in 22-carat gold, diamonds and precious gemstones. Tanishq grew by 57 per cent to Rs. 2,028 crore during financial year 2008 on the back of retail expansion and improvement in per-store growth. There is an immense scope for further growth as Tanishq comprises a small share of the overall Rs 70,000-crore Indian jewellery market i. e. 2. 89%. But in the organized retailing it has a whopping 40% market share. Among the branded jewellery players in the Indian market, Tanishq is considered to be a trendsetter. Accordingly, the companys ad campaigns emphasised the purity aspect of all Tanishq ornaments. In November 2002, Tanishq introduced a new collection of jewellery called Lightweights. The collection featured neckwear, earrings, bangles, rings and chains in 22 karat gold with prices starting at Rs 1,100. Tanishq focused not only on urban markets, but small town markets as well. We will write a custom essay sample on Tanishq Competition Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Carbons focus had always been to move jewellery from the vault to the dressing table and bring the selling of jewellery out of heavily guarded jewellery stores. This was achieved by persuading a few lifestyle stores to add branded jewellery to their vast array of products. Besides selling from lifestyle stores, Carbon also sold its products as gift items over the internet. Diamond was the preferred precious stone, but other colored stones were also used. Comprising items of everyday use, (rings, chains, bracelets, ear studs, tie-pins and cuff links) Carbon items were an impulse purchases. While the cost of traditional jewellery was negotiable, the cost of Carbon items was fixed and nationally uniform. GILI Gili was launched in 1994, targeting mainly the youth who wanted to celebrate Valentines day. Gili distributed its jewellery priced between Rs. 500 and Rs. 40,000 through lifestyle and department stores across the country to increase accessibility among its target segment, the 15 to 30 age group. The companys products were also made available through a mail-order catalogue. All Gili products came with a guarantee of diamond and gold quality. In 2000, Gili launched its diamond heart collection targeted at teenagers and priced between Rs 500 and Rs. 2500. The collection was promoted at college campuses with banners, pamphlets and a few advertisements targeted at teens. Gili soon realized that just pushing its product was not enough; it also had to customize its products for special occasions. Following this, it launched a Diamond Heart Collection specially designed for Valentines Day. Gili also made special promotional offers during festive seasons like Christmas and Diwali. Tanishq Competition Analysis free essay sample Tanishq has established itself as the most desirable and trustworthy jewelry brand in India. The product portfolio includes jewellery for everyday wear and for occasions, in 22-carat gold, diamonds and precious gemstones. Tanishq grew by 57 per cent to Rs. 2,028 crore during financial year 2008 on the back of retail expansion and improvement in per-store growth. There is an immense scope for further growth as Tanishq comprises a small share of the overall Rs 70,000-crore Indian jewellery market i. e. 2. 89%. But in the organized retailing it has a whopping 40% market share. Among the branded jewellery players in the Indian market, Tanishq is considered to be a trendsetter. GILI: In 1994, Gili Jewellery was established as a distinct brand by Gitanjali Jewels. Gili offered a wide range of 18-carat plain gold and diamond-studded jewellery, designed for the contemporary Indian woman. Mumbai-based Tribhovandas Bhimji Zaveri (TBZ), opened its new concept store Trendsmith in Mumbai in December 2001. We will write a custom essay sample on Tanishq Competition Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Encouraged by the response towards its first store, the Zaveris planned to take Trendsmith (India) Pvt. Ltd. all over the nation by opening as many as 100 stores by 2010. CARBON: In early 1991, the Bangalore based Peakok Jewellery Pvt. Ltd. , was incorporated. In 1996, a new brand of 18-carat gold-based jewellery called Carbon was launched. Tanishq worked hard on a two-pronged brand-building strategy: cultivate trust by educating customers about the unethical practices in the business and change the perception of jewellery as a high-priced purchase. Tanishqs strategy was to create differentiation and build trust. According to Kurian, the first part of the strategy was to provide a point of differentiation in a highly commoditized category which is the whole point of branding. The second part of the strategy was to project Tanishq as an unimpeachable mark of trust. One way to create differentiation was through design. Tanishqs USP was the purity of its gold. Accordingly, the companys ad campaigns emphasised the purity aspect of all Tanishq ornaments. In November 2002, Tanishq introduced a new collection of jewellery called Lightweights. The collection featured neckwear, earrings, bangles, rings and chains in 22 karat gold with prices starting at Rs 1,100. Tanishq focused not only on urban markets, but small town markets as well. CARBON Carbons focus had always been to move jewellery from the vault to the dressing table and bring the selling of jewellery out of heavily guarded jewellery stores. This was achieved by persuading a few lifestyle stores to add branded jewellery to their vast array of products. Besides selling from lifestyle stores, Carbon also sold its products as gift items over the internet. Diamond was the preferred precious stone, but other colored stones were also used. Comprising items of everyday use, (rings, chains, bracelets, ear studs, tie-pins and cuff links) Carbon items were an impulse purchases. While the cost of traditional jewellery was negotiable, the cost of Carbon items was fixed and nationally uniform. GILI Gili was launched in 1994, targeting mainly the youth who wanted to celebrate Valentines day. Gili distributed its jewellery priced between Rs. 500 and Rs. 40,000 through lifestyle and department stores across the country to increase accessibility among its target segment, the 15 to 30 age group. The companys products were also made available through a mail-order catalogue. All Gili products came with a guarantee of diamond and gold quality. In 2000, Gili launched its diamond heart collection targeted at teenagers and priced between Rs 500 and Rs. 2500. The collection was promoted at college campuses with banners, pamphlets and a few advertisements targeted at teens. Gili soon realized that just pushing its product was not enough; it also had to customize its products for special occasions. Following this, it launched a Diamond Heart Collection specially designed for Valentines Day. Gili also made special promotional offers during festive seasons like Christmas and Diwali. Trendsmith specialized in premium, exclusive and modern looking jewellery distinct from TBZs traditional designs. The brands USP was that every piece of jewellery was exclusive and unique. There were different collections for babies, teenagers and weddings. According to Samrat Zaveri, Managing Director, Trendsmith is a store for those with little time and big pockets. Trendsmith laid emphasis on affordable, fashionable jewellery. It changed its collection every season. Trendsmith also had a design studio where customers could design their own jewellery. The company advertised in womens fashion and lifestyle magazines since the readers of such magazines formed 80 percent of its clientele.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Taxi Driver Analysis essays

Taxi Driver Analysis essays One of the greatest artistic films of all time is none other than Martin Scorseses Taxi Driver. The film is less a realistic drama than it is a turmoil of the unconscious. The events depicted in the film could not haven take place in our modern world. Scorsese shows us a Hell on Earth environment, and by taking us out of our world of conventions; the film depicts a seemingly all too real depiction of the human mind, and the potential of its limits. The main aspect of the film captivating story is its exquisite development of the character, Travis Bickle. This man represents every man in his loneliness and potential for violence. His inner psyche is in no way real, but rather a nightmare. By constantly reinforcing the dreamlike nature of the story, the director makes it seem that we are floating in Bickles mind, and everything we see we realize is not the way it really is, but the way he sees it. The narratology of this film makes it no less a documentary of the human mind than it is a story. When we look at the movie from this perspective, we can see that the Bickle is very much like us. He is frightened by what he does not understand. He is alienated by a seemingly cold society that rejects his attempts at intimacy. Perhaps we have all not been alienated in this way, but surely all of us have felt alone and sometimes afraid. At certain times we agree to him as a sophisticated idealist, while other times we portray him as a ps ycho. The story makes his inner mentality all too realistically believable. Robert De Niro magnificently portrays his character right down to the core, intensifying the oh so shockingly real personality of Travis Bickle. He has exploited every aspect of his character and from his on screen performance; he has embodied himself into Bickles delirium. De Niro even went as far as actually getting a taxi driving license, to get a sense of what the ...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

All About Snow Fleas, a Wingless Insect

All About Snow Fleas, a Wingless Insect For the bug enthusiasts among us, its a happy day when we find snow fleas. At the end of a long, cold, nearly bug-free winter, we feel lucky to find a mass of tiny arthropods hopping about in the melting snow. Snow fleas are actually not  fleas  at all, but a kind of  springtail. Because theyre tiny and tend to jump, they remind people of fleas and thus were given this inaccurate name. What Do Snow Fleas Look Like? From even a short distance away, snow fleas look like bits of dirt or pepper on the surface of the snow. They catch peoples attention because they have a habit of jumping. At times, snow fleas gather in such large numbers they make the snow look black or blue. They tend to aggregate on the surface of the snow around the trunks of trees. Take a closer look, however, and youll find that snow fleas look similar to other springtails. Theyre quite small, reaching only 2-3 millimeters in length. The springtails we find flinging themselves across the snow are usually blue in color. In North America, the snow fleas were likely to find belong to the genus  Hypogastrura. Why and How Do Snow Fleas Jump? Snow fleas are wingless insects, incapable of flying. They move by walking and jumping. But unlike other famous jumping arthropods like  grasshoppers  or  jumping spiders, snow fleas dont use their legs to jump. Snow fleas catapult themselves into the air by releasing a spring-like mechanism called a  furcula, a sort of tail thats folded underneath its body - thus the name springtail. When the furcula releases, the snow flea is launched several inches in the air, a considerable distance for such a tiny bug. Its an effective way to flee potential predators quickly, although they have no way to steer. Why Do Snow Fleas Gather on the Snow? Snow fleas live in the soil and leaf litter, even in the winter months, where they munch away on decaying vegetation and other organic matter. Springtails are actually quite common and abundant, but theyre so tiny that they tend to blend in and go unnoticed. Remarkably, snow fleas dont freeze in the winter thanks to a special kind of protein in their bodies. This protein is rich in  glycine, an  amino acid, which enables the protein to bind to ice crystals and keep them from growing. It works much like the antifreeze we put in our cars. The antifreeze protein allows snow fleas to remain alive and active even in subzero temperatures. On warm and sunny winter days, particularly as we get closer to spring, snow fleas make their way up through the snow, perhaps in search of food. As they gather in numbers on the white surface, flinging themselves from place to place, they attract our attention. How Do I Get Rid of Snow Fleas? Why would you want to get rid of snow fleas? Theyre perfectly harmless. They dont bite, they cant make you sick, and they wont hurt your plants. In fact, they help improve your soil by breaking down organic material. Leave them be. Once the snow melts and spring arrives, youll forget theyre even there - unless you like bugs, in which case you may find yourself searching for them in the soil. Sources: Springtails, by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University.Springtails and Snowfleas, Insect Diagnostic Laboratory, Cornell University.Snow fleas: helpful winter critters, by Katie Kline, Ecological Society of America, January 28, 2011.Structural Modeling of Snow Flea Antifreeze Protein, by Feng-Hsu Lin, Laurie A. Graham,  Robert L. Campbell, and Peter L. Davies,  Biophysical Journal, March 1, 2007.Snow fleas are conspicuous but harmless, by Jeff Hahn, University of Minnesota Extension, March 26, 2014.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Evaluating Capital Investment Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Evaluating Capital Investment Project - Essay Example If the firm is usually not attentive while making the capital expenditure resolution, the time taken by the project and the invested money are wasted. The main focus of the capital investment taken by the organization should largely depend on the selection of the right choices and procedures for its expansion (Rachlin, 1987).   During the evaluation and selection of metrics in a capital budgeting plan, for example, in a healthcare organization, it is vital for executives to be able to compare all the options using an objective yard stick, in spite of the cash flow mode that result with each objective. The Net Present Value (NPV) is usually termed as the effective model for capital project evaluation. In the health care organization, while focusing on the cash flow strategies, there are lessons examining the unconventional performances, for example, accounting rate of return and the discounted payback methodology (Harrison & Mason, 1996). There is a formalized procedure that is followed while determining the type of metric program to be used. This is usually to impact changes on several model compositions on the model outputs. The project that an organization chooses affects the business evolution, this is usually a result of several shortcomings encountered in the marketing of the organizations, for exampl e, increased competition, change of client’s predilections and the aging capacity of the organizational property. Sensitivity scrutiny is the most significant component of the replication experimentation, and it usually manipulates the models of formulations (Friedlob & Plewa, 1996). It is mostly used in the examination of the model behavior, through a general procedure that defines the model production variables represented in a vital aspect of model change. The value of several contributions of the models, are usually varied, and the consequential change in production is scrutinized (Goetze &